There are a number of very common fonts, which you can install through APT/Synaptic, including the Microsoft TrueType core fonts (e.g. Arial Black, Times New Roman).
Before installing, make sure you enable the extra repositories, (If your not sure how to do this please see: Repositories/Ubuntu).
Install the fonts:
$ sudo apt-get install msttcorefonts texlive-fonts-extra
Installing Other fonts
You can also use many other fonts, like those downloaded from dafont.com. There are two options when installing: one to install them for a Single User, this means that only this user can use them, or installing them for System Wide use, so that every user on the system can use the fonts.
Once you have downloaded and unpacked your font files (.ttf, .TTF), you will need to create a ~/.fonts if it doesn’t exist.
$ mkdir ~/.fonts
Copy the font files to the .font directory:
$ cp *.ttf ~/.fonts
$ cp *.TTF ~/.fonts
Now we need tell the system about the new fonts:
$ fc-cache -f -v ~/.fonts
Once you have downloaded and unpacked your font files (.ttf, .TTF), we just need to move them to the font directory:
# sudo cp *.ttf /usr/local/share/fonts/
# sudo cp *.TTF /usr/local/share/fonts/
Run the following command to rebuild the font cache:
# sudo fc-cache -f -v